Excerpt from “The Factors that Determine What Makes a Revolution Violent or Nonviolent”

Excerpt from “The Factors that Determine What Makes a Revolution Violent or Nonviolent”

What is a Revolution?

A revolution is described as a distinct form of change, whether it be social or political and takes place within a brief time span. Many elements are involved in defining a revolution and are debated by many theorists. For the purpose of this paper, a revolution is defined as a fundamental change in the social and political structure of a current government and/or society that takes immediate effect within political, societal and economic structures. A mere exchanging of politicians or political parties is not sufficient to be considered a revolution, but rather a complete overhaul of politicians, laws, regulations, economic rationalization and societal stipulations must take place. A revolution must affect all parts of society inclusively, including the youth, children, adults, elderly, men and women. It must not exclude race, sexuality, religion or any other minority part of society.

There are many methodologies that explore how revolutions begin, are executed and structured.  There are micro and macro revolutions, as well as political, societal and socioeconomic revolutions, as well. Also taken into consideration is whether a revolution is sparked by internal or external sources.

Social Movements
“A social movement can be defined as a persistent and organized effort on the part of a relatively large number of people either to bring about or resist to social change.”  Although few social movements fit into the categories of being either a “change-resistant conservative revolution” or a “change-oriented liberal revolution,” benefits arise in understanding the goals and motives of such movements. Furthermore, reducing a category to being either revolutionary based or reform based. A reform movement is oriented around changing existing policies, whereas revolutionaries seek the complete upheaval and replacement of the system at hand. Within the scope of revolutionaries, there are further categories of Rightest revolutionaries and Leftist revolutionaries. Rightist revolutionaries seek a return to “traditional” values and institutions, preferring to put aside social equality in favour for social order “through institutional change,” whereas, the Leftist revolutionaries’ goal is to:

…change major social and political institutions in order to alter the dominant economic, social, or political relationships within a society. Usually involved is a redistribution of valuable resources between the rich and the poor, with more equal access to educational opportunities, medical services, higher wage levels, or in the case of a predominantly agricultural society, land, a stated goal.

Although sociologists attempt to categorize social movements, social movements have the ability to be rooted in a combination of conservative and liberal change, just as revolutions can be not completely liberal or completely conservative, but have a mixture of characteristics.

What Causes Revolutions?

Revolutionary movements develop for a number of reasons, differing from country-to-country and society-to-society. Below is a list of elements in no specific order of essential factors in the development of revolutions:

  1. Mass frustration resulting in popular uprisings among urban or rural populations: A large proportion of a society’s population becomes extremely discontented, which leads to mass-participation protests and rebellions against state authority. In technologically limited agricultural societies, the occurrence of rural (peasant) rebellion or at least rural support for revolution has often been essential (Foran 2005, 2006; Goldfrank 1994; Goldstone 1991; 1994; 2001a; Greene 1990).
  2. Dissident elite political movements: Divisions among elites (groups that have access to wealth or power of various types or are highly educated and possess important technical or managerial skills) pit some elite members against the existing government (Foran 2005; 2006; Goldfrank 1994; Goldstone 1991; 1994; 2001a; Greene 1990).
  3. Unifying motivations: The existence of powerful motivations for revolution that cut across major classes and unify the majority of a society’s population behind the goal of a revolution (Foran 2005; 2006; Goldstone 1994; 2001a; Greene 1990).
  4. A severe political crisis paralyzing the administrative and coercive capabilities of the state: A state crisis occurs in the nation experiencing or about to experience development of a revolutionary movement. The crisis, which may be caused by a catastrophic defeat in war, a natural disaster, an economic depression or the withdrawal of critical economic or military support from other nations, or by any combination of these factors, may deplete the state of loyal personnel, legitimacy in the eyes of the public, and other resources. The state then becomes incapable of carrying out its normal functions and cannot cope effectively with an opposition revolutionary movement (Foran 2005; 2006; Goldfrank 1994; Goldstone 1991; 1994; 2001a; Greene 1990).
  5. A permissive or tolerant world context: The governments of other nations do not intervene effectively to prevent a revolutionary movement from developing and succeeding in a given nation (Foran 2005; 2006; Goldfrank 1994; Goldstone 2001a).

                  Milestones of a Revolution

Once these factors are in place, a revolution has the ability to blossom and take place. Although in the event, a revolution lacks any of these factors, a revolution is more prone to failure.  A revolution’s success is not only measured in the overthrowing of a power, but also in the construction of a new social/political/economic order.

Once a revolution begins to take place evident progress occurs in a series:

  1. A society’s intellectuals, most of whom in the past normally supported the existing regime, turn against it;
  2. The old regime tries to save itself from revolution by attempting reforms that ultimately fail to protect the old order;
  3. The revolutionary alliance that eventually takes power from the old government is soon characterized by internal conflicts;
  4. At first, the post-revolutionary government is moderate;
  5. Disappointment with the failure of moderate revolutionaries to fulfil expectations leads to more radical revolutionaries gaining control;
  6. The radicals take more extreme actions to fulfil revolutionary aims, including the use of coercive methods against those whom they perceive resist or threaten the fulfilment of revolutionary goals;
  7. Eventually, more pragmatic moderate revolutionaries replace the radicals.

Revolutions have the ability to divide a group of people in two- the first being those who oppose the old order and those who prefer to side with the old order; something being experienced in Libya today and to a much less degree in Egypt. “Needless to say, if the structural change is a slow one, an evolution, then there will be sufficient time to adjust and absorb so that the changes will become less threatening.”

Revolutions can be sub-categorized into internal revolutions and external revolutions:

The external revolution may be successful or not, accompanied by a regular war or not, but the goal is usually clear: autonomy in decision-making. Precisely because that goal is so clear, such a national revolution is often not accompanied by any social revolution. Instead, it becomes an achievement in its own right.

The internal revolution is a social revolution and a much more complex phenomenon involving a change not only in the structure relating the country to the outside but also in the internal structure. It is difficult to see how this can be brought about without some positively formulated goal, some relatively clear-cut idea of the alternative to domination is freedom from domination; for the internal revolution the matter is more open-ended and more complex. Since it is more complex it is often simplified, and one mechanism of simplification is to see an automatic link between the two types: if only the external revolution can be achieved the internal revolution will come almost by itself.

Armed Conflict

“Between 1900 and 1999, the world produced about 250 new wars, internal or civil, in which battle deaths averaged at least two-thousand per year… Those wars caused about a million deaths per year.”  Here, Tilly indicates the great influence of armed conflict on battle deaths, but what is an armed conflict or an internal war?

“Conflict” can be defined as the state of relations experienced when two or more parties have mutually exclusive goals… Internal wars involve violent conflict, but they may fall short of the levels of violence that we typically associate with wars. Included in this category are the following: coups d’etat, whereby one elite seeks to replace another elite element in the government; revolutions, which are mass movements aimed at removing the government;  and insurrections.”

Although there is no clear and universal definition of the criteria of what constitutes a war, Keith Krause, an expert in Human Security in World Politics describes the main characteristic differentiating a war from an armed conflict is that wars occur between nations and armed conflicts occur within nations.

In similar fashion, the definition of nonviolence is also debated, but in contrast, Kurt Schock describes eighteen misconceptions of nonviolence in attempt to define what violence is.

  1. Nonviolent action is not inaction (although it may involve the refusal to carry out an action that is expected, that is, an act of omission), it is not submissiveness, it is not the avoidance of conflict, and it is not passive resistance… The term passive resistance is a misnomer when used to describe a non-violent action. There is nothing passive or evasive about nonviolent resistance, as it is an active and overt means for prosecuting conflicts with opponents…
  2. Not everything that is not violent is considered nonviolent action. Nonviolent action refers to specific actions that involve risk and invoke non-violent pressure or nonviolent coercion in contentious interactions between opposing groups.
  3. Nonviolent action is not limited to state-sanctioned political activities. Nonviolent action may be legal or illegal. Civil disobedience, that is, the open and deliberate violation of the law for a collective social or political purpose, is a fundamental type of nonviolent action.
  4. Nonviolent action is not composed of regular or institutionalized techniques of political action such as litigation, letter writing, lobbying, voting, or the passage of laws… nonviolent action is context specific. Displaying anti-regime posters in democracies would be considered a low-risk and regular form of political action, whereas the same activity in nondemocracies would be considered irregular, would involve a substantial amount of risk, and would, therefore, be considered a method of nonviolent action…
  5. Nonviolent action is not a form of negotiation or compromise… and should be distinguished from means of conflict resolution.
  6. Nonviolent action does not depend on moral authority, the “mobilization of shame,” or the coercion of the views of the opponent in order to promote political change…
  7. Those who implement nonviolent action do not assume that the state will not react with violence…
  8. The view that suffering is central to nonviolent resistance is based on the misguided assumption that nonviolent action is passive resistance and that nonviolent action is intended to produce change through the conversion of the oppressor’s views (Martin 1997)…
  9. Nonviolent action is not a method of contention that is used only as a last resort when the means of violence are unavailable…
  10. Nonviolent action is not a method of the “middle class” or a “bourgeois” approach to political contention. Nonviolent action can be and has been implemented by groups from any and all classes and castes, from slaves to members of the upper class (McCarthy and Kruefler 1993)…
  11. The use of nonviolent action is not limited to the pursuit of “moderate” or “reformist” goals. It may also be implemented in the pursuit of “radical” goals.
  12. While nonviolent action by its very nature requires patience, it is not inherently slow in producing political change compared to violent action (Shepard 2002)…
  13. The occurrence of nonviolent action is not structurally determined. While there are empirical relationships in geographically and temporally bound places and time periods between the political context and the use of a given strategy for responding to grievances.
  14. The effectiveness of nonviolent action is not a function of the ideology of the oppressors…
  15. Similarly, the effectiveness of nonviolent action is not a function of the repressiveness of the oppressors…
  16. The mass mobilization of people into campaigns of nonviolent action in nondemocracies does not depend on coercion.
  17. Participation in campaigns of nonviolent action does not require that activists hold any sort of ideological, religious, or metaphorical beliefs…
  18. Similarly, those who implement nonviolent action do not have to be aware that they are implementing a particular class of methods…

                    Demographics

The Middle East and North Africa region has been the site of early civilizations and empire expansionism for centuries. This, involved migrations of people and as empires fell or new civilizations started, minority populations—those left behind by previous empires remained and became engulfed in their new surrounding societies. We would now categorize these areas as Arab nations. There are many ethnic minority groups in the MENA, some of which had been living in the region before the emergence of Islam.  According to the Islamic Human Rights Council, as of 1990, there were approximately thirty million minorities living in Arab nations out of the 220 million overall populations. As of recent statistics, there are more than 340 million Arabs in the MENA region, this number, however, includes the many ethnic minorities that do exist in the area, including the Kurds, Armenians, Aramaeans, Chaldeans, Turkmens, Cherkess, Turks, Zangians, Nubians, Berbers, Banyans, Haratins, Gnawas, Tauregs, Chechens, Romanis, Ajamis, Moors and Assyrians.

Bahrain being one of the more prominent nations in the news concerning the Arab Spring is home to the Ajamis and Banyans. The Kurdish population is very much concentrated in the regions of Iraq and Syria, whereas the Armenian population extends out into Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Egypt and Jordan. It is estimated that      15-20% of the Iraqi population is Kurdish and 5% are Turkmen, with sizeable populations of Cherkess, Armenians and Chechens. Lebanon and Jordan’s non-Arab population is estimated to be around 5%, respectively. Kuwait’s expatriate community makes up slightly less than half of the total Kuwaiti population, which played a major role in the protests that erupted in Kuwait. Aramaeans and Chaldeans are estimated to account for more than 100,000 citizens of the Arab population. Many Moroccans, Algerians and Libyans are of Berber descent and genetic testing in Morocco further supports the theory made by Berberists that despite the conquest of North Africa by Arab nations and the predominance of the Arabic language, the population remains ethnically Berber.

Sources:

Johan Galtung,  A Structural Theory of Revolutions. (Rotterdam UP, 1974), Introduction.

Galtung, Op. Cit. 19.

James DeFronzo, Revolutions and Revolutionary Movements. (Boulder, CO: Westview, 2007), 9.

Charles Tilly, The Politics of Collective Violence. (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2003), 55.

Rye Schwartz-Barcott and Carolyn W. Pumphrey, Armed Conflict in Africa. (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2003), 4.

Keithe Krause, “Human Security in World Politics. ”Human Security in World Politics Lecture Notes”, (The Graduate Institute, Geneva, Switzerland 2011) accessed 20 June 2011.

The Islamic Human Rights Commission, “IHRC – Minorities in the Arab World”, Islamic Human Rights Commission [web document] (27 January 2004) <http://www.ihrc.org.uk/show.php?id=989>, accessed 17 July 2011.

CIA World Factbook, “Bahrain”, CIA World Factbook [web page] (2007) <Cia.gov>, Accessed 17 July 2011.

Human Rights Watch, “Syria”, Human Rights Watch [web page] (1996) <http://www.hrw.org/legacy/reports/1996/Syria.htm&gt;,  Accessed 17 July 2011.

Armenian Diaspora, “Armenian Population in the World”, [web page] News from Armenia, Events in Armenia, Travel and Entertainment. <http://www.armeniadiaspora.com/population.html>, 17 July 2011.

CIA World Factbook, Op. Cit. Iraq.

CIA The World Fact book, Op. Cit. Jordan.

CIA The World Fact book, Op. Cit. Lebanon.

CIA The World Fact book, Op. Cit. Kuwait.

The Islamic Human Rights Commission, Loc. Cit.

BBC News, “Africa | Q&A: The Berbers.” BBC News, 12 Mar. 2004, 23, <http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3509799.stm&gt;, accessed 17 July 2011.

N. Harich, et al., Classical Polymorphisms in Berbers from Moyen Atlas (Morocco): Genetics, Geography, and Historical Evidence in the Mediterranean Peoples. (Annals of Human Biology 29.5, 2002) 473-87.

Messing About with the Many #Canva #Resume #Template

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“action@38degrees.org.uk”

action@38degrees.org.uk

This morning, dozens of small children will be left out in the cold. French authorities are bulldozing half of the refugee camp in Calais. They’re destroying the makeshift church and the makeshift children’s centre. [1]

There are a few hundred children in the camp, and they’re in limbo. Lots of the kids have family in the UK, but it’s taking too long to reunite them with their families. [2] David Cameron could step in to make sure these children are protected – but unless he feels the pressure, he won’t. They’ll be left alone in the sprawling, freezing camp.

Benedict Cumberbatch, Jude Law and Sandi Toksvig have started an open letter to the Prime Minister asking him to step in and help. [3] They’re well known names. But there’s not many of them. The letter has about 140 names so far – but imagine if it got thousands more overnight. It would cause a media splash, and put David Cameron under the spotlight.

Please can you add your name to the open letter calling on Cameron to protect the refugee children facing bulldozers in Calais?

[if mso]> <v:rect xmlns:v=”urn:schemas-microsoft-com:vml” xmlns:w=”urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:word” href=”https://secure.38degrees.org.uk/refugee-open-letter&#8221; style=”height:50px;v-text-anchor:middle;width:300px;” stroke=”f” fillcolor=”#ff7a01″> <w:anchorlock/> <center> <![endif]ADD MY NAME[if mso]> </center> </v:rect> <![endif]

As the bulldozers move in, children living in the Calais refugee camp will be left to fend for themselves – children like Tom*. Tom lost all his family, his Mum, his Dad, in the conflict in Syria. He’s trying to be reunited with his only remaining brother – but he’s trapped in Calais. [4]

It’s freezing cold in the camp right now. And as the bulldozers roll in, children stuck a few miles from our shores are in need of help. The open letter to David Cameron calls for three things:

  1. To speed up reuniting children stuck in Calais and Dunkirk with their families in the UK
  2. Make sure that kids who don’t have family in the UK are looked after properly by the French authorities and given somewhere to live in France.
  3. To stop the bulldozers until all children are either given a safe place to live in France or reunited with their family in the UK.

[if mso]> <v:rect xmlns:v=”urn:schemas-microsoft-com:vml” xmlns:w=”urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:word” href=”https://secure.38degrees.org.uk/refugee-open-letter&#8221; style=”height:50px;v-text-anchor:middle;width:300px;” stroke=”f” fillcolor=”#ff7a01″> <w:anchorlock/> <center> <![endif]ADD MY NAME[if mso]> </center> </v:rect> <![endif]

38 Degrees members are working tirelessly from Penzance to Perth to make sure our communities are ready to welcome these families fleeing war. We’ve pushed dozens of councils to promise to resettle hundreds of people. [5]

And together we launched the National Refugees Welcome board to make sure that as soon as refugees arrive here, they’ve got somewhere to stay and the essentials are ready for them. [6] Let’s be there again for the children trapped just a few miles from their families in the UK. Please add your name to the open letter?

[if mso]> <v:rect xmlns:v=”urn:schemas-microsoft-com:vml” xmlns:w=”urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:word” href=”https://secure.38degrees.org.uk/refugee-open-letter&#8221; style=”height:50px;v-text-anchor:middle;width:300px;” stroke=”f” fillcolor=”#ff7a01″> <w:anchorlock/> <center> <![endif]ADD MY NAME[if mso]> </center> </v:rect> <![endif]

Thanks for being involved,

Nat, Laura and the 38 Degrees team

[1] The Guardian: France prepares to bulldoze half of Jungle migrant camp:

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/feb/12/half-jungle-camp-calais-bulldozed-migrants-moved

The Independent: Young Calais refugees face having their houses demolished:

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/refugee-crisis-young-calais-refugees-face-having-their-houses-demolished-a6880051.html

[2] Amnesty International UK: Refugees and migrants in Calais and Dunkirk with relatives in UK must be reunited in Britain:

https://www.amnesty.org.uk/press-releases/refugees-and-migrants-calais-and-dunkirk-relatives-uk-must-be-reunited-britain

[3] The Mirror: Celebrities urge David Cameron to save Calais Jungle children and reunite them with families in UK:

http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/celebrities-urge-david-cameron-save-7396503

The Guardian: British writers and actors urge David Cameron to rescue refugee children:

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/feb/18/british-writers-actors-david-cameron-rescue-refugee-children

[4] Tom* is an unaccompanied minor currently trapped in Calais. His story was recorded by Citizens UK. He’s just one of around 300 children stuck in Calais trying to be reunited with family in the UK. *Name changed to protect his identity.

[5] Public Sector News: All 22 Welsh local authorities to take in Syrian Refugees:

http://www.publicsectorexecutive.com/Public-Sector-News/all-22-welsh-local-authorities-to-take-in-syrian-refugees?dorewrite=false

BBC News: Ashford Council Agrees to take in 250 refugees:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-kent-34480728

[6] 38 Degrees blog: Refugees thank you:

https://home.38degrees.org.uk/2015/09/16/refugees-thank-you/

38 Degrees is funded by donations from thousands of members across the UK. Making a regular donation will mean 38 Degrees can stay independent and plan for future campaigns. Please will you chip in a few pounds a week?

Start a direct debit

50 Bucket List Goals

What’s on your bucket list?

I have an ever long and ever changing/shifting bucket list. And it seems fitting to reassess my life goals in light of the new year. Here are just a few wants on my list. Some are simple, some are more challenging.

  1. Have my book published

    book
    http://cdn.toptenreviews.com/rev/site/cms/category_headers/121-h_main-w.png
  2. Write another book 

    download
    http://www.mycity-web.com/great-tips-for-writing-a-book/
  3. Get funding for a PhD

    phd1
    http://blog.accepted.com/2015/05/22/phd-funding-disparities/
  4. Get into a PhD program that is right for me

    phd061814s
    https://techknowtools.files.wordpress.com/2014/08/phd061814s.gif
  5. Learn to surf

    Lakshadweep-1680
    http://i.cdn-surfline.com/surfnews/images/2012/03_march/destination_lakshadweep/full/Lakshadweep-1680.jpg
  6. Get healthy

    healthy-habits
    http://promobiledj.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/healthy-habits.jpg
  7. Go to a dinosaur museum

    triceratops
    http://www.fossilmuseum.net/DinosaurFossils/triceratops/triceratops.jpg
  8. Be an extra in a movie or show

    images
    http://www.actt.edu.au/media/1138/actt_difference_desktop.jpg
  9. Learn to spearfish

    spearFishing
    http://watercraftjournal.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/spearFishing.jpg
  10. Own a home and piece of land where I can have lots and lots of animals like donkeys, horses, llamas, lambs, dogs, cows and more.

    images
    http://www.hallmark-farm-kennel.com/HallmarkFarmHouse.jpg
  11. Adopt and/or foster children tulsa-adoption-attorney
  12. Get a job that allows me to travel and pay off my student loans

    jobs-travelling-business-man-move
    http://globetrooper.com/notes/wp-content/uploads/jobs-travelling-business-man-move.jpg
  13. Get lasik

    Lasik-Procedure
    http://qualityicare.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Lasik-Procedure.png
  14. Get laser hair removal

    http://zoggdermatology.com/images/laserhairremovalstages.jpg
    The laser emits an invisible light which penetrates the skin without damaging it. At the hair follicle, the laser light absorbed by the pigments is converted into heat. This heat will damage the follicle.
  15. Start a nonprofit

    foundations_a_sm1
    http://boardsthatexcel.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/foundations_a_sm1.gif
  16. Take horseback riding lessons

    Horse_riding_in_coca_cola_arena_-_melbourne_show_2005
    https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/Horse_riding_in_coca_cola_arena_-_melbourne_show_2005.jpg
  17. Have friends

    friends-for-life
    http://www.newlovetimes.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/friends-for-life.gif
  18. Become more flexible

    extreme-flexibility-people-32_thumb
    http://lh3.ggpht.com/-M1Of3Z1Vg_U/UHaxA469Y3I/AAAAAAAC6Bo/4isPqvUU9F4/extreme-flexibility-people-32_thumb.jpg?imgmax=800
  19. Fly first class

    Etihad_first_class_bed
    http://www.first-class-flight.com/images/first-class-insights/Etihad_first_class_bed.jpg
  20. Make someone’s wish come true d760991e995d83172de94452f2319e06
  21. Go cliff jumping Woman_cliffjumping_3307605b
  22. Hang out by a serene waterfall

    images
    http://7-themes.com/data_images/out/71/7014890-beautiful-waterfall-hd-pics.jpg
  23. Name a star dCVnPp3
  24. Have my own private plane and/or helicopter

    Private-Jet1
    http://site.privatejetdaily.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Private-Jet1.jpg
  25. Be in the fashion industry

    fashion
    http://reallifeauckland.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/fashion.jpg
  26. Learn to dive

    Diving_into_pool
    http://www.basicspine.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/Diving_into_pool.jpg
  27. Go scuba diving

    Scubadiving.png
    http://d236bkdxj385sg.cloudfront.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Scubadiving.png
  28. Befriend an elephant

    Twins
    Twins https://iso.500px.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/2048-5.jpg
  29. Have one of my plays produced

    william-chang-cheongsam-designs-for-theater-play-2
    http://www.elegantstory.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/william-chang-cheongsam-designs-for-theater-play-2.jpeg
  30. Have someone illustrate a comic book based off of one of my stories

    DARWYN-ORIGINAL-ART
    http://www.lightningoctopus.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/DARWYN-ORIGINAL-ART.jpg
  31. Have one of my stories turned into a film

    images (1)
    https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQKJE7O1FQg2zWYPmN-kzI3IB5bPY9T6TuqRyyNK2fAK5Y58ZtBcQ
  32. Learn to draw

    http://orig04.deviantart.net/587b/f/2012/247/2/d/hand_drawing_hand_by_kenpjones-d5dl8kw.jpg
    http://orig04.deviantart.net/587b/f/2012/247/2/d/hand_drawing_hand_by_kenpjones-d5dl8kw.jpg
  33. Live in a castle

    download
    http://dreamatico.com/data_images/castle/castle-2.jpg
  34. Learn to sew

    blogdotcraftzine
    http://www.noellemunozjewelry.com/storage/blogdotcraftzine.jpg?__SQUARESPACE_CACHEVERSION=1331086348393
  35. Go Ziplining zipline-adventure-in-whistler-photo_7325314-fit468x296
  36. Publish a cookbook

    cookbook
    https://mathemagicalsite.files.wordpress.com/2015/08/cookbook.gif
  37. Own a car

    2014_bmw_x5_angularfront
    http://static.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/images/Auto/izmo/364333/2014_bmw_x5_angularfront.jpg
  38. Dance in the rain

    images
    http://www.sterlingsanders.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/Sterling_Sanders_-_Dance_in_the_Rain.png
  39. Hang glide

    hanggliding1
    http://www.lakearrowhead.com/img/hanggliding1.jpg
  40. Go to a haunted house

    Haunted-House-HD-Wallpapers
    http://hdwallpapersbin.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Haunted-House-HD-Wallpapers.jpg
  41. Throw a themed party mall-birthday-party-1
  42. Go through a corn maze cornmaze2009
  43. Witness a miracle

    miracles-2
    https://fromthedeskofmardrag.files.wordpress.com/2014/05/miracles-2.jpg
  44. Take singing lessons

    how-to-sing-higher-notes1
    http://vocalartsstudios.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/how-to-sing-higher-notes1.jpg
  45. Take kickboxing lessons

    train
    http://www.myelitetraining.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/train.jpg
  46. Learn to knit

    shaun-knitting1-copy-1
    http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-ryd7cNqmrOo/UBqBFijS2lI/AAAAAAAAAFE/e2jGlVXKl44/s1600/shaun-knitting1-copy-1.gif
  47. Learn to ride a bike

    bike-riding
    http://www.todayifoundout.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/bike-riding.jpg
  48. Go parachuting

    canstock6172634
    http://cdn.xl.thumbs.canstockphoto.com/canstock6172634.jpg
  49. Swim with dolphins

    Megan-Dolphin
    http://havebabywilltravel.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/Megan-Dolphin.jpg
  50. Meet Harry Styles, cut off some of his hair and sell it on ebay for millions so I can afford to fund my bucket list.  harry-styles-loud-shirt-coffee-los-angeles

 

https://www.paypal.me/hebavsreason

Wish List

 

There is nothing casual about civilian casualties

Are you a Daily Mail reader? I won’t lie, I usually read the Daily Mail for a laugh. Some of these stories they come up with… they’re just interesting and chuckle-worthy to say the least. I do, however, know that I should never read an article concerning a serious matter on the Daily Mail website. But alas, I torture myself every time and even worse, I always scroll down to the comments section to read the vile things people feel so confidently typing, but rarely say in person.

Some of the worst things I’ve read include:

Comments about how “Real” refugees shouldn’t have phones- Many refugees are fleeing war. That doesn’t mean they didn’t have possessions. Cell phones are no longer a first world standard. Get over it because I’m willing to bet that the vast majority of refugees don’t have these fancy contracts and money to spend speaking hours on the phone.

Comments about how “real” refugees shouldn’t be allowed to wear makeup- First of all, I saw the video this ignoramus was commenting on and the woman did not have makeup up. She was and is naturally gorgeous. Perfect contours, skin and thick eyebrows. She’s prettier than all of us put together. That comment was pure jealousy. Plus, considering everything these refugees have been through, so what if she gets to put on a tiny bit of makeup. She deserves to feel beautiful and like her normal self after the torment of fleeing her country and home.

Comments about how refugees are only in it for the benefits- You know what benefit they really want. The benefit of life!!! I can’t entertain that nonsense.

Comments about how Syrians should fight for their country- This is the silliest comment of all. Syrians have been fighting for their country for years. They’re not only fighting against ISIS, you know. They’re fighting against the Assad regime and the US and Russia and the whole list of countries that have been striking Syria. What weapons do these innocent civilians have that they can use against a whole world? The numbers don’t add up. The worst part is so many refugees are children. Do we really expect children to fight? Because if we allowed that the Daily Mail commenters would comment about how child soldiers are wrong.

Comments about how refugees desire to continue their education makes them economic migrants and not refugees- You realize that these people have had their entire lives come to a complete halt. They’ve literally been sitting around starving and waiting to die. A whole generation of young Syrians is growing up illiterate and unable to do basic math or know much about anything other than war. These refugees aren’t coming over just so they can take advantage of university education. No, if they could have stayed in Syria and continued their education they would have. But there are no teachers left in schools in Syria because there are no schools left. The schools that are left get used as shelters and makeshift community centers.

Comments about how “we” should bomb “them all”- That is an incitement of terror and makes you complicit in murder. Just putting that out there, you horrible human being. I have no problem with seeing ISIS and Assad terrorist thugs get blasted off this earth, however the legal thing to do would be to capture them and try them in a court of international law, in which they would be found guilty and live a long and tortuous life in maximum security prisons. But there is nothing casual about bombing an entire city, killing innocent civilians and calling them casualties.

Comments about how everyone in Raqaa is an ISIS terrorist and that if they weren’t they would have left- Yes, Raqaa is an ISIS headquarter. Yes, ISIS controls the city, but is everyone there a supporter of ISIS, no? But to openly oppose it would leave you dead or tortured. Why don’t people leave? They don’t have the money. Sure smugglers could get you out, but where would you go? The smugglers will take all your money, risk your life and leave you penniless on a raft in the Mediterranean or in the desert on the way to a desolate refugee camp or in some other destroyed part of Syria.

Comments judging refugees for being separated from their families- Seriously? Is this the Olympic category for most vile comment made? Because if it is, you win. People get separated from their families in all sorts of ways that most people would find inconceivable. But it happens all the time. Talk to anyone whose family has been through a war or some sort of catastrophe: I can guarantee you that a majority of people will tell you they have at least one family member that ended up alone or separated from the rest.

Comments about how refugees have “such nice tents”- This dude commented on how her tent was so nice that she couldn’t possibly be a “real” refugee and that she probably has all this money stashed away. How deep in the dirt is your head exactly? Much of this type of supplies has been provided by aid workers, charity organizations and normal human people with hearts that donated much needed goods, such as tents. Do you want to live on a tent on a street corner when it’s raining and cold? No, especially since winter is nearing. You’re just a horrible person for thinking this

Comments stating the run of the mill stereotypes- The long list of racial slurs, insults, and stereotypes that I won’t humor by listing. You know the type orientalist rubbish that is slanderous, libel, disgusting and horrible filth, but Facebook won’t take it down because they’re too worked up taking pictures down of women’s bodies.

 

My conclusions: Firstly, humans are awful. I don’t know how people can be awful. I doubt most of these hateful commenters could handle  day in the life of a refugee. If you really think “we don’t owe them anything,” then you clearly have no idea how complicit our governments are in making Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan and the rest of the world, the situation that they are in today.

Secondly, we haven’t learned from history one bit. These comments– ugh just look at some of the things people said during WWII about refugees. Please and compare those comments to now.

And lastly, I can’t be the only one who sees comparison in 9/11 and the invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq with the Paris Attacks and the subsequent bombing of Raqaa.

Civilians, particularly children are innocent and pay the highest toll in wartime situations. I’m not going to sit here and pretend like I know what the answers to terrorism, racism, discrimination and bigotry are. Offhand I would say education, but we all know the world isn’t that simple.

All I want is for people to think for 30 seconds before they type these horrible comments. I pray your ignorant minds become enlightened with knowledge, wisdom and empathy.

 

REMARKS: Ambassador-at-Large for International Religious Freedom David Saperstein At the Release of the 2014 Report on International Religious Freedom

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE

Office of the Spokesperson

For Immediate Release

 REMARKS

Ambassador-at-Large for International Religious Freedom David Saperstein

At the Release of the 2014 Report on International Religious Freedom

 

Press Briefing Room

Washington, D.C.

October 14, 2015

AMBASSADOR SAPERSTEIN:  I want to thank the Secretary, not just for his remarks; he made a number of commitments of support for this work when I came on, and he has more than fulfilled those commitments.

The Annual International Religious Freedom Report provides an important opportunity for the United States to highlight an issue that continues to be a foreign policy priority for the Administration, documenting how, where, and when the universal right of freedom of religion or belief was violated or protected in every corner of the world.

Through the immense effort of countless State Department officials, particularly our knowledgeable and tireless staff of the International Religious Freedom Office and the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor in Washington, as well as dedicated staff in each one of our embassies across the globe, the 2014 report maintains the high standards of objectivity and accuracy for which we strive.

A little over a year ago, I stood at a podium next to Secretary Kerry here in this room when he announced my nomination for the position of Ambassador-at-Large, and during my 10-month tenure I have been gratified by the support from both the Secretary and the President in implementing so many of the priorities I identified in my confirmation hearing and my swearing-in speech.  We have since increased the number of staff in my office, allowing us to expand our country monitoring work and better address a variety of issues – from the importance of religious freedom and countering violent extremism to the terrible global impact of blasphemy laws.  Simultaneously, we have expanded foreign assistance programs that strengthen religious freedom. 

I’m also deeply appreciative of President Obama’s and Secretary Kerry’s support for the appointment of Knox Thames as special advisor for religious minorities in the Near East and South Central Asia; I’m delighted that he’s able to be with us today.  Knox will build upon our already intense efforts on behalf of these minorities over the past year, including our work to protect Yezidis in those early days and weeks on Mount Sinjar in Iraq and the Assyrian Christian communities of the Khabur River area of Syria.  Knox will help guide the U.S. Government-wide efforts to promote conditions in these countries that will allow members of displaced minority communities to be able to return home.

Since January, I’ve also worked to build deeper partnerships with foreign governments to advance religious freedom as these global challenges require a global response.  Thanks to the leadership of my Canadian counterpart, Ambassador Andrew Bennett, we have forged an intergovernmental contact group bringing together likeminded nations to devise common strategies to promote and protect religious freedom for all.

Now, during my tenure I’ve noticed certain enduring truths.  In many countries, religious freedoms flourish; people are free to choose their faith, change their faith, speak about their faith to others, teach their faith to their children, dissent from religion, build places of worship, worship alone or in fellowship with others.  In such societies, denominations and faith groups organize as their leaders and members see fit.  Interfaith cooperation flourishes, religious communities contribute significantly to the social welfare and serve as a moral compass to their nations.

Yet in far too many countries people face daunting, alarming, growing challenges on account of their beliefs.  In countries where once proud traditions of multi-faith cooperation, positive coexistence was the norm, we have witnessed growing numbers of religious minorities being driven out of their historic homelands.  And in too many countries, prisoners of conscience suffer cruel punishment for their religious beliefs and practices.  This report gives a voice to all those around the world who are seeking to peacefully live their lives in accordance with their conscience or religious beliefs.

In the pages of this report, we strive to put a human face on this incredibly important human right that touches so many people across the globe and remains central to the identity of the American people.

A number of trend lines stood out in this year’s report.  The first one, the Secretary has already mentioned, is the single greatest challenge to religious freedom worldwide, or certainly the single greatest emerging challenge, and that is the abhorrent acts of terror committed by those who falsely claim the mantle of religion to justify their wanton destruction. 

In both Iraq and Syria, Daesh has sought to eliminate anyone daring to deviate from its own violent and destructive interpretation of Islam.  Targets include non-Muslims, Shia, Sunnis alike.  It has displaced individuals from their homes based on their religions or ethnicity.  Similarly, Boko Haram has killed thousands in both indiscriminate violence and deliberate attacks on Christians and Muslims who oppose its radical ideology.  It has subjected the peoples of Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Niger, to unspeakable acts of terror, sexual violence, abductions, and fatal attacks on places of worship.

Secondly, the impact of blasphemy laws and apostasy laws in countries including Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Sudan, and in a number of others – as well as laws that purport to protect religious sentiments from offense.  The United States uniformly opposes such laws which are used to oppress those whose religious beliefs happen to offend the majority.  Such laws are inconsistent with international human rights and fundamental freedoms, and we will continue to call for their universal repeal.  The existence of such laws has been used in some countries as pretext to justify violence in the name of religion to create an atmosphere of impunity for those resorting to violence and/or leads to false claims of blasphemy.

Third, repressive governments routinely subject their citizens to violence, detention, discrimination, undue surveillance, for simply exercising their faith or identifying with a religious community.  We see this dramatized by the plight of countless numbers of prisoners of conscience.  We remain deeply committed to seeing such individuals freed everywhere in the world.

In my travels to Vietnam, I saw firsthand how religious groups are forced to undergo onerous and arbitrary registration process to legally operate.  As Vietnam considers amending its religion laws, we stand with the country’s religious communities in calling for the easing of such restrictions.  And in Burma, Ambassador Bennett of Canada and I spoke out forcefully together against a series of discriminatory laws banning interfaith marriage and restricting conversion.

Many governments have used the guise of confronting terrorism or extremism to broadly repress religious groups for nonviolent religious activities, or by imposing broad restrictions on religious life.  Russia continues to use vaguely formulated anti-extremism laws to justify arrests, raids on homes and places of worship, and the confiscation or banning of religious literature.  Tajikistan bans people under age of 18 from participating in any public religious activities, supposedly on the ground that exposure to religion will lead youths to violence.  Chinese officials have increased controls on Uighur Muslims’ peaceful religious expression and practice, including instances of banning beards and headscarves. 

And a word about China:  During my visit in August, I found that despite widespread, continuing government abuses and restriction, many places of worship were nonetheless full and flourishing.  In areas of the country where the government’s hand was lighter, faith-based social service and welfare agencies operating homeless shelters, orphanages, soup kitchens, made highly positive contributions to the wellbeing of their society.  We’ve urged the Chinese Government to use that as a model of what can work nationwide.  But far more often restrictive policies still stifled religious life, preventing Chinese people from experiencing such benefits.  This reality has only been exacerbated by the growing crackdown on human rights lawyers in China, including those seeking to work within China’s legal system to enhance religious freedom.  And this does include Zhang Kai, a peaceful, respected, Christian human rights lawyer who was detained just prior to a meeting with me and whose whereabouts remain unknown.

A fourth trend is the role of societal violence and discrimination, that which emanates not from the government itself but from other societal groups.  And the question is:  What does the government do to try and ameliorate the conditions that lead to such violence, and what does it do to protect harassed minority communities?  In Europe, many governments are struggling to cope with the aftermath of terror attacks such as those in France, Belgium and Denmark, along with increased anti-Semitism and anti-Muslim actions and sentiments.  As hundreds of thousands of Syrians, Afghans, Iraqis and others have fled into Europe in recent weeks, we urge governments to uphold their obligations for humane treatment of refugees and ensuring that individuals do not face harassment or discrimination on account of their Muslim faith.

Now, despite these many challenges detailed in our report, we also see governments and individuals working to improve their communities and societies.  Following the terror attacks in Copenhagen in February, thousands of people of different faiths formed in Denmark a human ring outside the synagogue where the murder occurred.  In September of 2014, Kyrgyzstan’s constitutional court ruled part of the country’s problematic religion law unconstitutional, a decision we hope will ease registration requirements for minority religious groups and enable members to engage in peaceful religious activities more freely.

After years of growing religious tensions and violence in Sri Lanka generated by hardline ethnic Buddhist groups, a new government has taken office and staked out a much more tolerant view of religious diversity.  Since that time, some of these tensions have noticeably eased. 

In closing, while the challenges are daunting, we are deeply inspired by the work of countless religious communities, civil society organizations, and individuals around the world working alongside us to ensure that their governments live up to their international commitments to protect freedom of religious and belief.  We dedicate our work to their struggle and continue to fight for a world in which every individual is free to live out the core of his or her conscience.

I’m now happy to answer any questions.

MR TONER:  Any takers?  Go ahead, David.

QUESTION:  You’ve sketched out a number of things that are going badly and a few things that are going well.  Is it possible to look at a global trend?  Are things better than they were when you took office or worse, globally?

AMBASSADOR SAPERSTEIN:  If you look at the Pew reports that I believe are a year behind our reports, over the last several years there’s been a steady increase in the percentage of people who live in countries that are – that have serious restrictions on religious freedom.  And of course, as both the Secretary and I pointed out, the escalation of the violence perpetrated by non-state actors, often in the name of their interpretation of religion, is a new phenomenon that has really escalated in the last 18 months.  So on that level, there are trends that are deeply troubling.

At the same time, if you look and for – just take one example in Europe, and you look at the acts of anti-Semitism and anti-Muslim activity that took place, across Europe leaders of the different countries and civil society leaders and religious leaders have all spoken out condemning these acts, taking steps to help prevent these acts, standing in protection of minority communities with many governments deploying either police or militia to protect endangered minority communities.  And we’ve seen enormous expansion of interfaith efforts on almost every continent to try and address the challenges.

So it’s hard to give you the sum between the dangerous and the encouraging parts of it.  This report doesn’t make those kinds of judgment.  It just states in facts what is happening in each and every country. 

MR TONER:  Barbara.

QUESTION:  Just to follow up the China situation, have the Chinese Government responded in any way to your questions about the detention of this Zhang Kai, I think his name is?  And also, what are the circumstances of the people who were detained around the same time?  And sorry – finally, how do you explain that balance or that kind of mixed message between religious – a certain amount of religious freedom or expression, but on the other hand increasing restrictions, especially when you were actually there?

AMBASSADOR SAPERSTEIN:  So let me clarify what the situation was.  At the very end of our time in mainland China, these detentions took place.  One was of somebody – someone with a human rights legal background who had met with us to give the analysis that that person brought to bear on the subject, who was detained the next day in house detention. 

About 10 of the people from the community of Wenzhou – now that, I’m sure, many of you have read about.  That’s a community where there’s been an escalation of efforts to take down crosses from a few hundred churches, to dismantle some churches in Wenzhou.  And we wanted to meet with people there.  We were denied permission to actually travel there, but we were allowed to go to the capital of that province.  And that group of people – including three human rights lawyers, four pastors from the area, three or four other activists, a group of about 10 people – were all detained. 

Several of them have been released.  Several of them still face the possibility of charges.  And with Zhang Kai, who really is one of the most respected human rights lawyers in China, someone who has argued over and over again that they have to work within the legal system of China in order to win these battles and has proved very skilled at doing that, representing a range of religious groups, he and I believe one or two or the others are still in locations where we’re not sure where they are.  This is not an uncommon occurrence.  And on – our human rights bureau has reached out in all their encounters.  We’re trying to talk about these problems in a structural level.   We have continued to ask questions.  We will continue on this.  And we hope that we will get answers.

Just on one foot – again, the report doesn’t make the judgments about why these disparity of experiences, these encouraging signs and these deeply discouraging signs, live side by side in the same country.  It just sets out the facts and allows you folks to provide the interpretation. 

MR TONER:  Nicole.

QUESTION:  Thanks for doing this, Mr. Ambassador.  The report talks about a wave of anti-Israel sentiment in Europe in 2014 that crossed the line into anti-Semitism.  And I’m wondering if you could explain to us how you defined where that line was.  What constituted anti-Israel action or sentiment versus anti-Semitic?

AMBASSADOR SAPERSTEIN:  We actually have a very brief paper on that.  If you’d like, we can provide that to you.  But just very quickly here, criticism of the public policy of any nation – Israel, the United States, China, a European nation, African nation, Asian nation – no matter what the nation is, that’s appropriate.  That’s part of the free marketplace of ideas and discourse. 

Where it has often crossed the line is when groups try to argue that Israel is an inherently illegal state and doesn’t have a right to exist as a Jewish state here and takes actions to de-legitimize those fundamental rights.  It comes – it’s right on the cusp of that line when it holds one country to different standards than it would hold any other country.  Normally we think of that as the denial of rights to a person that are given to other similarly situated people, or the imposition of obligations on a person not applied to other people.  We normally think of that as racism.  And this, in the minds of many, feels that when it steps over that line, that it constitutes anti-Semitic activity and not just anti-legitimate discourse about Israel’s policies.

MR TONER:  In the back.  Michele.

AMBASSADOR SAPERSTEIN:  Hi, Michele.

QUESTION:  Hi, how are you?  When you look at what ISIS is doing in the Middle East, would you describe that as a war on Christians?  What more could the U.S. do to protect communities like that or to help resettle people here?  And then finally, what would you tell Russia about Bashar al-Assad’s record on protecting minorities in that country?

AMBASSADOR SAPERSTEIN:  That’s a broad range of issues.  Let me try to do this quickly, working backwards.  The – Assad’s record is absolutely clear.  We have made that clear to the world.  I think there’s overwhelming consensus in the global community about the horrific abuses of human rights that the Assad regime has been engaged in.  And so Russia’s intervention doesn’t change what our message on that has been.

In terms of bringing people here, the President has announced an expansion in the number of refugees that we will be taking in.  It is presumed a number of those will include – of the expansion will include people from that – will include people from that region.

We have worked vigorously on the issue of protecting the minority communities.  ISIL is certainly targeting the Christian community, but is also targeting the Mandaeans, the Shabak, certainly the Yezidis that explicitly said it wanted to wipe out here.  So it is trying to decimate and eviscerate the presence of those very communities here.  And we know that if there’s going to be a possibility to bring them home, we know what the ingredients are going to be.  I’ve spoken on this publicly to a number of the major Christian groups who are concerned about this, but also the groups that are concerned about the – in meetings with the Yezidi, the Shia Muslim groups from the area who are affected by this as well.

That is, we need to sustain them where they are in place at a condition that they’re going to be willing to stay – mostly in Kurdistan – until ISIL’s presence is removed.  And we clearly need to remove ISIL’s presence for them to return home.  That means there have to be schools for their kids, there has to be better health care, there have to be job opportunities for their kids who are graduating school, et cetera.  And the United States is the lead factor in providing that kind of humanitarian aid.

Secondly, there needs to be a security system when they return home in which they can trust, because a lot of that trust was breached when ISIL came in.  And they need their own – the right to have their own effective defense forces that have to be integrated with the Iraqi and Peshmerga forces.

Third, there has to be a restorative justice, a transitional justice system.  People go back to their communities; some of their former neighbors have taken over their businesses, their homes.  There has to be a system that will fairly adjudicate that and hold people responsible who assisted ISIL.

Fourth, at a macro level in Iraq, there has to be a change in the governance structures that allow those minority groups to have a real role in shaping the future of the country.  Prime Minister Abadi has made clear that that is his intent.  We see some of that represented in appointments that he’s made, and the United States is working with the Iraqi Government on that day in and day out.

And finally, there has to be an internationally engaged plan on the economic rebuilding so that people will have a sense of hope for the future.  We know what those ingredients are.  The United States, often together with the UN or other nations, are working on planning in this.  And that’s very important because if it were – we waited until ISIL was pushed out, it would leave a vacuum that chaos would potentially descend.

And so we know what needs to be done.  We’re working on those things – and pushing very hard – that will benefit the Christian community.  I mean, think about it.  There’s been a Christian community there for 1600 years.  Across the Nineveh plain, church bells have pealed for 1600 years.  Today they are silent.  And we are not going to rest until people have a right to live out their religious lives back in their home communities in accordance with their conscience.

MR TONER:  A couple more questions.

QUESTION:  Thank you.  On North Korea and on religious freedom and human rights in North Korea, in North Korea they detained many of the religions and the pastors for past years, then they are still in prisons.  So how – would you please tell us:  How many U.S. citizens still in the North Korean prisons?  Can you guess how many U.S. citizen pastors or religions or whatever citizens?

AMBASSADOR SAPERSTEIN:  First, as you know, Korea remains a country of particular concern for us.  It is one of the worst violators of human rights in the entire world.  We have talked about that over and over again.  The countries of particular concern who were this past year continue this year.  I think everyone knows that list – Burma, China, Eritrea, Iran, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.

Secondly, we continue – we don’t have direct relations, so we continue through international partners and by mobilizing these international coalitions to put continuing pressure for North Korea to ease its restrictions on religious freedom and to let every one of those prisoners of conscience – and there are far, far too many, and they often face brutal conditions in the prisons – to go.

And finally, the United States Government is always working, day in and day out, to ensure that its citizens who are imprisoned unjustly without due process and for the exercise of fundamental internationally protected rights are allowed to go free, and/or encounter a judicial system that does provide due process and fairness.  We do that as best we can through the international contacts with North Korea going on every day on an ongoing basis.

The question of how many, I actually don’t know the answer to.  The specific cases we can’t comment on.  American privacy laws protect us from – protect them from allowing us to talk about their situation, and they’re not in a position to give us authority and permission to do that.  So we can’t comment on the individual cases.

MR TONER:  Pam.

QUESTION:  In your outreach to countries to address religious freedom concerns, do you ever get pushback from governments who may view the idea of religious freedom as a Western concept?

AMBASSADOR SAPERSTEIN:  We do, and it has been somewhat of a growing phenomenon.  Here – we therefore make it clear over and over again we are not trying to impose the standards of Western countries, of countries of any particular majorities – religious majorities – here, or American, European standards on any of these countries.  Almost all of these countries we’re dealing with are signatories to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights – Article 18 is quite clear about a robust application of religious freedom.  We regard these as internationally protected rights, and it is within that guise that we deal with it.

Let me just point out, however, that we respect the varied traditions of people up to the point it violates those international norms.  We try to engage with them on their terms to find ways to address what concerns they might have about defamation of religion, about attacks on religion, about the questions of what religiously would be – would constitute blasphemy by finding non-legal ways to deal with that.  The passage of UN Resolution 1618 is a prime example of that.  It enjoyed the support of the OIC in passing it.  It looks at non-penal ways to address some of these questions. 

And we have set up a very effective training program drawing on the Justice Department, the Homeland Security Department, and the State Department.  Working with other experts around the world, we’re out in other countries doing training programs about this, and the countries – it’s been a handful of countries we’ve done a test run on, and now we’re going to be expanding this in a much more global reach.  It’s one of the things that I’m focused on doing.  And that’s where we engage people where they are and try and bring them in ways to address their concerns within international legal norms.

MR TONER:  Really, last few questions.  In the back there and then Nicole.

QUESTION:  Thank you, Ambassador, for your time.  The Syria Catholic patriarch last week said that Christians in the Middle East feel like the West has abandoned them.  How do you respond, and how can this report help in their crisis right now?

AMBASSADOR SAPERSTEIN:  Sometimes there are competing truths – two things that are absolutely true here.  There is a robust effort of the developed world – of the democratic world, excuse me – to help protect the Christian communities.  They are – all of the efforts that we’re doing in terms of supporting the humanitarian needs of Syrian refugees, of Iraqi refugees; of working with the Government of Iraq in the lines – along the lines that I was talking about in the international community manifest that.  Day in and day out there isn’t a single day that we are not doing more and more.  The – bringing Knox Thames, such a respected advocate of religious freedom – for those of you who don’t know Knox, he had been the director of policy and research at the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom, widely respected in the field – who hit the ground running when he came on just within the last couple of weeks, he’s going to be working side by side with me and with our international counterparts and with every arm of our government that is doing programs, working on defense training and work with countries in the area here (inaudible) the intelligence communities, all of the human rights work that we’re doing here, to help really strengthen the work on behalf of these minorities. 

That’s one reality.  I mean, I could talk for hours about what is being done, the programmatic work that’s being done – the relief and humanitarian work, et cetera.  They’re in the middle of a horrific war situation.  Every day their lives could be imperiled.  There’s no magic button that can fix this.  It is – as the President has said, it is going to be long, steady progress here until we can reach the kind of goals that we want.  If you’re living there and you fear for the well being of your family every day, certainly you’re going to feel like the world isn’t doing enough about it.  It’s a paradox.  We recognize that reality.  We do everything we can to ameliorate that, to offer greater protection and to meet the needs of these communities, and we won’t cease doing so until they really are able to live in freedom in accordance with their conscience.

MR TONER:  Nicole, last question (inaudible) sorry.

QUESTION:  Does the State Department consider efforts by Western countries to ban the Muslim headdress or the Muslim covering for women as a repression of religious freedom?

And second, very quick, if you can.  Iran, Saudi Arabia – which one is more respectful of religious freedom?  Thanks.

AMBASSADOR SAPERSTEIN:  Both of them, as you heard, are on the list of the countries of particular concern here and continue to be on that list, Nicole.  So we don’t make judgments about which are better and worse.  Both of those countries have structural, systematic, egregious violations.  Minority in Saudi Arabia – no one other than Muslim community can worship openly, can partake in their religious life openly.  Even when they do it privately, often they’re harassed and interfered with.  These are very serious challenges and problems.  In Iran, we have very serious problems as well.  Again, the Shia Muslim community – interpretation of Islam dominates the legal structure, the culture of the country.  Other Muslims find themselves – Mahdi Muslims find themselves in trouble; in the Baha’i community, systematically oppressed.  Almost every minority group faces restrictions and are discriminated against in one form or another. 

So they are both – have very serious problems.  Read the report; you would have to make the judgment yourself which is the worst here. 

QUESTION:  And the headdress issue?

 AMBASSADOR SAPERSTEIN:  Say again?

QUESTION:  The headdress issue?

AMBASSADOR SAPERSTEIN:  Yeah – yes.  We have taken a position in our approach to this that exercise of freedom of religion and belief allows people to make determinations about what their appropriate re0ligious garb would be.  If women feel they have to have their heads covered, if Sikhs believe that they have to wear turbans, this is their right.  If Jews believe they have to wear yarmulkes, kippot to cover their head, this should be the determination that each and every person makes.  There may be circumstances in which there are compelling reasons – simply the need to identify someone or safety reasons – you can’t wear a turban working around equipment that could catch a turban.  If you got to wear a safety helmet, you got to wear a safety helmet. 

So accommodations should be made as far as possible.  Those exceptions are really few and far between.  We believe that people’s right to live in accordance with their conscience includes the right to use religious garb and religious dress.  We’ve been critical of other democratic countries as well as nondemocratic countries that have put such restrictions, and we hope in the future things will ease enough that – and will be seen in a different perspective that this restriction of religious freedom will be allowed to fade away.

MR TONER:  Thank you all, appreciate it.  Thank you, Ambassador. 

AMBASSADOR SAPERSTEIN:  Thank you.

# # #

REMARKS: Secretary of State John Kerry At the Rollout of the 2014 Report on International Religious Freedom

 

 

 

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE

Office of the Spokesperson

For Immediate Release

 

REMARKS

 Secretary of State John Kerry

At the Rollout of the 2014 Report on International Religious Freedom

 

Press Briefing Room

Washington, D.C.

October 14, 2015

SECRETARY KERRY:  Well, today we present the department’s International Religious Freedom Report for 2014.

And I particularly want to thank David Saperstein and his entire team for producing a report that reflects a vast amount of objective research and that will provide a uniquely valuable resource for anybody who cares about religious freedom in all of its aspects.  And I am very grateful for David’s willingness to come on board.  He has provided important new energy and focus on this, is building a terrific team, and I think you’re going to hear more and more from the Department with respect to our fight to protect people’s right to exercise religious freedom.

The message at the heart of this report is that countries benefit when their citizens fully enjoy the rights to which they are entitled.  And this is not a hopeful theory; this is a proven reality.  No nation can fulfill its potential if its people are denied the right to practice, to hold, to modify, to openly profess their innermost beliefs.

I should emphasize that the concept of religious freedom extends way beyond mere tolerance.  It is a concept grounded in respect for the rights and beliefs of others.  It is deeply connected to our DNA as Americans – to everything that we are and everything that we came from.  It’s a concept that is based on respect, and respect, in turn, demands legal equality.  It demands that the practitioners of one faith understand that they have no right to coerce others into submission, conversion, or silence, or to literally take their lives because of their beliefs.

The purpose of this annual report is to highlight the importance of religious freedom not by lecturing but through advocacy and through persuasion.  Our primary goal is to help governments everywhere recognize that their societies will do better with religious liberty than without it.  The world has learned through very hard experience that religious pluralism encourages and enables contributions from all; while religious discrimination is often the source of conflicts that endanger all. 

By issuing this report, we hope to give governments an added incentive to honor the rights and the dignity of their citizens; but the report also has the benefit of equipping interested observers with an arsenal of facts.

And one of the more consequential facts of our era has been the convergence – really, the development of a sort of new phenomenon of non-state actors who, unlike the last century and the violence that we saw and persecution that we saw that emanated from states, are now the principal persecutors and preventers of religious tolerance and practice.  Most prominent, and most harmful, obviously, has been the rise of international terrorist groups such as Daesh, al-Qaida, al-Shabaab, Boko Haram.  And all have been guilty of vicious acts of unprovoked violence. 

Under their control, captives have been given a choice between conversion or slavery or death.  Children have been among the victims, and also among those forced to witness or participate in executions – sometimes even of their own family members.  Entire populations of religious minority groups have been targeted for killing.  Terrified young girls have been separated out by religion and sold into slavery.  

The repugnance of these acts is only multiplied when the perpetrators seek to justify themselves by pointing a finger at God and claiming somehow that God licensed these acts.  We are, and we will continue, to oppose these groups with far more than words of condemnation that are contained in this report.

We will also continue to help the survivors.  In the Middle East, and in Africa, we are assisting local partners in responding to the needs – both physical and psychological – of women and girls who have escaped or been released after having been held captive by terrorist groups.  Each victim, each nightmare, each wound is another reason to urgently address the root causes of violent extremism.

And before closing, I just want to make three general points. 

First, as much as we oppose the actions of terrorists, we do not agree with governments that use those crimes as a pretext for prohibiting religious activities that are in fact nonviolent and legitimate.  Those who misuse the terms “terrorist” and “extremist” are not fooling anybody, and trying to dictate an artificial conformity of religious expression is not a prescription for harmony.  It is a prescription for frustration, anger, and rebellion.  And we have learned time and again that if citizens are denied the rights to practice and express their beliefs peacefully, they are far more likely to explore other and more often than not dangerous alternatives.

Second, the right to religious freedom is not contingent on having a large number of followers.  Religious minorities – including those who profess no faith – should have the same rights as religious majorities, and that is a fundamental belief.  Sadly, the pages of this report that is being released today are filled with accounts of minorities being denied rights in countries like Burma, Iran, Pakistan, Russia, Saudi Arabia, many others.

And finally, I want to emphasize the importance and urgency of the work that is being carried out by Ambassador Saperstein and his office, including the addition of a new special advisor on religious minorities.  Among their initiatives is a groundbreaking effort to build a coalition of likeminded nations to uphold the international standard of religious freedom for all. 

In that connection, I urge the release of men and women detained or imprisoned anywhere in the world for the peaceful expression and practice of their religious beliefs.  This includes Mr. Zhang Kai, a Chinese Christian human rights lawyer who was detained in late August just prior to a scheduled meeting with Ambassador Saperstein, and whose present whereabouts are unknown.

In closing, I note that religious bigotry is present to a degree in every continent and every country, and sadly, even including our own.  It may be expressed through anti-Semitism or prejudice against Muslims; through the persecution of Christians, Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs, and others; or it may come in the guise of attacks against religion itself, as we saw so tragically in Oregon at the beginning of this month. 

In response, we all have a responsibility to affirm our faith in the principles of religious freedom that the world community has endorsed so many times and that have helped to uplift America and define our country since the 17th century, when Roger Williams issued his call for soul liberty, and when, some years later, Seneca chief Red Jacket told a missionary delegation from Boston, “Brother, we do not wish to destroy your religion.  We only want to enjoy our own.”  That’s the fundamental principle of tolerance that guides us, and it is a value worth fighting for.

With that, I am pleased to yield the floor to Ambassador David Saperstein, who will give you a little more detail about the report.  Thank you all.

   

Camp Coordination and Management (CCCM) Expert Job posted by: Danish Refugee Council, Ethiopia/Djibouti Posted on: August 21, 2015

Job description

Background

DRC has been providing relief and development services in the Horn of Africa since 1997 and initially focused assisting those who are displaced by conflict, but now works with all those in the region impacted by displacement. DRC has offices across the region, and has been working in Ethiopia in 2009 and Djibouti since earlier in 2015 to address the needs of refugees, IDPs, and migrants in or transiting those countries. DRC has or will have offices in Djibouti-Ville, Ali-Sabieh, and Obock, and implements projects in three refugee camps across Djibouti.

Much of DRC’s work in Djibouti is focused on responding to the refugee influx into that country from Yemen. In order to be able to host the new arrivals, the government has asked UNHCR to establish a new refugee camp in Obock, a region in northern Djibouti. Obock is a hard-to-reach region that has been severely affected by drought since 2008 and has the worst malnutrition rates in the country. The refugee camp site, Markazi, is located on the coast, four kilometers away from Obock town, the capital of the region. Markazi camp currently lacks many of the facilities and services associated with refugee camps.

Job profile

The Camp Coordination and Management (CCCM) Expert in Obock, Djibouti will assist and mentor relevant governmental officials in and around Markazi refugee camp to ensure an appropriate and efficient delivery of services to the Yemeni refugee population in the camp. The CCCM Expert will be directly supervised by the Area Manager in Djibouti and will also work closely with DRC’s staff in Obock and countrywide.

Key responsibilities

Technical Support in CCCM

  • Support governmental officials charged with camp coordination and camp management through advice, mentoring, and consultation on a daily basis.
  • Help responsible officials ensure a multi-sectoral response to assist and protect refugees in communal settings in Djibouti, specifically in the Obock region, specifically using a transparent system of management, ensuring maintenance of camp infrastructure, and mobilizing the participation of the affected populations in CCCM.
  • Ensure the participation of women, persons with special needs (PSN), and other traditional marginalized groups in CCCM.
  • Provide assistance to relevant authorities to make all appropriate efforts to find durable solutions for Yemeni refugees in Djibouti.
  • Promote collaboration between duty-bearers and stakeholders working with refugees and others fleeing Yemen in and around Markazi camp.
  • Encourage the inclusion of key humanitarian partners working in Markazi camp and Djibouti more generally in CCCM planning and implementation, respecting their mandates and program priorities.
  • Work to adapt relevant policies and guidelines and technical standards to context of crisis.
  • Conduct capacity building and develop capacities of governmental authorities responsible for camp coordination and camp management, as well as other stakeholders active in the sector.
  • Support any other relevant CCCM training for NGOs, UN agencies, government officials, and members of displaced and host communities.

Aid Strategic Planning in CCCM

  • Conduct rapid needs and assessments to inform camp management and strategic direction as well as identify risks and vulnerabilities, including those related to gender, age and diversity.
  • In close consultation with relevant officials, develop concrete initiatives and specific strategies to improve camp coordination and camp management, as well as reduce identified risks.
  • Assess CCCM needs and identify problems/gaps and propose/prioritize timely practical actions to respond to particular problems.
  • Support the development of site designs that support the protection of and assistance to men, women, boys and girls.
  • Help to conduct contingency planning based on worst-case and most likely scenarios in terms of population movements.

Monitoring, Reporting, and Development

  • Develop and utilize CCCM monitoring tools and mechanisms to ensure proper camp coordination and management.
  • Undertake quality control and site monitoring to ensure that services provided are according to international best practice standards and to measure progress against implementation plans.
  • Work to ensure adequate reporting and effective information sharing amongst all partners working in Markazi camp, disaggregating data by age and gender
  • Conduct program monitoring as per expected outputs and outcomes.
  • Monitor financial spending and budgets for all DRC support projects in CCCM in Obock.
  • Contribute to donor and management reports on CCCM support projects.

Coordination and Representation

  • Share relevant project information with stakeholders.
  • Participate in general camp coordination meetings as well as CCCM specific coordination fora.
  • Coordinate with ONARS, UNHCR, UNICEF, NGOs, and other key stakeholders on CCCM issues and relevant contingency planning.
  • Ensure internal coordination and harmonization of DRC CCCM-related activities with DRC’s Ethiopia/Djibouti and regional protection programs.

Reporting

The CCCM Expert will report to the Area Manager for Djibouti.

Qualifications

  • University or graduate degree in international relations, development, law, gender, or other relevant field.
  • Minimum of three years’ relevant work experience, with experience in camp coordination and/or camp management a requirement.
  • Proven commitment to accountability and quality assurance.
  • Excellent analytical and writing skills.
  • Experience with capacity building, and in convening and facilitating trainings and workshops.
  • Excellent interpersonal skills and demonstrated ability to establish effective and working relations with national staff members and other stakeholders.
  • Experience living and working in cross-cultural, multi-sector, insecure, and/or remote environments.
  • Ability to work well under pressure and in adverse conditions.
  • Substantial project management skills and experience.
  • Fluency in written and oral French.
  • Strong professional written and oral English language skills.
  • Knowledge of Arabic, Somali, Afar, or Amharic languages would be a plus.
  • Proficiency in common computer packages and financial software i.e. Word, Excel, Powerpoint, etc.

Duty Station

Obock, Djibouti with some travel across Djibouti and to Addis Ababa. Note that this is an unaccompanied position.

How to apply

Interested candidates who meet the required qualifications and experience are invited to submit updated CV and cover letter explaining their motivation and why they are suited for the post.

We only accept applications sent via our online-application form on www.drc.dk under Vacancies. Direct link to apply for this position is:

https://delta.hr-manager.net/ApplicationInit.aspx?cid=1036&departmentId=19006&ProjectId=145508&uiculture=eng&MediaId=5

Please forward the application and CV, in English through the online application on www.drc.dk under vacancies no later than 4 September 2015.

If you have questions or are facing problems with the online application process, please contact job@drc.dk

For general information about the Danish Refugee Council, please consult http://www.drc.dk.

Location

Obock, Obock, Djibouti

Details

Start date
October 1, 2015
Application deadline
September 4, 2015
Education requirements
Languages needed
Level of language proficiency
Fluency in written and oral French. Strong professional written and oral English language skills. Knowledge of Arabic, Somali, Afar, or Amharic languages would be a plus.
Employment type
Full time
Professional level
Professional
Salary details
This position is rated as A11 on the DRC salary scale available at http://www.drc.dk.
Benefits
Other employment conditions in accordance with the Danish Refugee Council’s Terms of Employment for Global Expatriates recruited by the Horn of Africa and Yemen Regional Office.
Job function
Owner’s areas of focus

Conflict Analyst Job posted by: International Rescue Committee Posted on: August 18, 2015

Job description

The International Rescue Committee responds to the world’s worst humanitarian crises and helps people to survive and rebuild their lives. Founded in 1933 at the request of Albert Einstein, IRC offers life-saving care and life-changing assistance to refugees forced to flee from war or disaster. At work today in more than 40 countries and in 22 U.S. cities, IRC restores safety, dignity and hope to millions who are uprooted by conflict or disaster. IRC leads the way from harm to home.

CONTEXTUAL BACKGROUND

The Syria crisis is often described as the worst humanitarian catastrophe since the end of the Cold War. Inside Syria, 7.6 million people are internally displaced and 12.2 million are in need of humanitarian assistance, with 4.8 million in hard-to-reach areas. There are 4 million Syrian refugees in neighboring countries. This is no short-term humanitarian episode. The devastating human consequences to huge numbers of people will endure for decades. The destruction of relationships, communities, livelihoods, homes and infrastructure will take years to repair.

IRC is offering a robust humanitarian response to the Syria crisis. With an annual budget in excess of $140 million and a rapidly expanding portfolio, supported by more than 1,250 staff in the region, IRC is undertaking programs in Syria and the neighboring countries of Turkey, Iraq, Lebanon and Jordan in the fields of health, child protection, education, women’s protection and empowerment, NFI and food distribution, cash assistance, water and sanitation, and livelihood programming. Our work in these challenging settings gives rise to some of the most pressing issues facing contemporary humanitarian action, including questions of access, security, funding and coordination.

POSITION SUMMARY

Based in Amman as a member of the Public Affairs team, the Conflict Analyst will provide comprehensive analytical support and advice to IRC in the Syria Response Region (SRR). Reporting to the Director of Public Affairs, the role will examine the impact of political, security and military developments on Syria’s displaced and conflict-affected populations and on programmatic, operational and strategic decision-making by IRC. By producing analysis, briefing notes, policy options and presentations to decision-makers within IRC, this position will enhance the effectiveness of IRC’s programs, advocacy and operations undertaken to assist Syrians affected by the conflict in their country.

SPECIFIC RESPONSIBILITIES

  • Monitor and assess prevailing trends in the political, security and socio-economic situation in Syria and surrounding region, identify and evaluate implications for IRC’s programs, operational posture and risk management strategies, and produce actionable policy briefs for IRC leadership.
  • Integrate qualitative and quantitative methodologies to produce comprehensive analyses to guide IRC decision-making.
  • Coordinate with the Regional Director, Syria Response Director, SRR Country Directors and Whole of Syria Health Co-Lead to ensure analysis is guided by programmatic demands and therefore value-added and impactful.
  • Prepare briefing notes and customized presentations to inform and advise IRC decision-makers in navigating the complex environments within which they work.
  • Assist country programs to map and understand shifting operating contexts for the purpose of adapting programs to keep them optimally responsive.
  • Contribute to new initiatives, including expanding regional programs and exploring regional fundraising avenues, devised to enhance IRC’s strategy, position and effectiveness in the region.
  • Identify, consolidate and maintain a network of contacts from other INGOs, INSO, ICRC and Red Cross/Crescent movement, UN agencies (including WoS coordination mechanisms, OCHA’s Information Management unit, Needs, Response and Gaps (NRG) and other coordination infrastructure), think-tanks, analytical networks inside and outside the Middle East, as well as Syrian analysts and community-based organizations.
  • Gather and collate existing “4Ws” data on the broad range of humanitarian actors in Syria, including those listed above.
  • Cross-check, update and expand IRC’s context knowledge base through key informant interviews and participant observation (e.g. in coordination meetings). Track and analyze instances of program contraction, relocation, withdrawal, or expansion, depending on security changes or other external access factors, and identify trends and anticipate triggers of follow-on events.
  • Gather information and perspectives on humanitarian presence, coverage and effectiveness from recently-arrived refugees, representatives of diaspora organizations, and remote interviews with people inside Syria.

SUPERVISORY RESPONSIBILITIES: None.

PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS

IRC and IRC staff must adhere to the values and principles outlined in the IRC Way – Standards for Professional Conduct. These are Integrity, Service, and Accountability. In accordance with these values, the IRC operates and enforces policies on Beneficiary Protection from Exploitation and Abuse, Child Safeguarding, Anti Workplace Harassment, Fiscal Integrity, and Anti-Retaliation.

REQUIREMENTS

  • Graduate degree in Government, Political Science, International Relations, Strategic Studies, or related discipline.
  • At least 5 years of directly relevant professional experience, at least two of which overseas.
  • Demonstrated ability to work collaboratively with a diverse range of colleagues in IRC and externally to build trust that sensitive information will be handled with discretion.
  • Superb English-language oral and written reporting skills. Demonstrated ability to write and edit documents on deadline and of highest quality.
  • A demonstrated keen understanding of political complexities in the Middle East.
  • Excellent networking, interpersonal, communication, relationship-building and negotiation skills.
  • Proven ability to persuade and influence colleagues not under supervisory authority.
  • Ability to respond to multiple priorities in a timely manner, delivering high-quality products.
  • Culturally sensitive – able and interested in working with a multi-ethnic team.
  • Strong commitment to the IRC’s mission, purpose and values.
  • Fluency in English is essential; Arabic language preferred.
  • Must be willing and able to travel frequently within the region.

Other Information: Amman is currently not assessed as a high-risk environment and remains generally a safe city as long as IRC security protocols are observed. The post is fully accompanied and housing will be provided according to IRC housing policy. Travel at approximately 30% is anticipated.

cmFjaGFlbGcuMDE0MzMuNDM1OEBpcmMuYXBsaXRyYWsuY29t.gif

How to apply

Please follow this link to apply: Click Here

Location

Amman, Muḩāfaz̧at `Ammān, Jordan

Details

Start date
August 18, 2015
Application deadline
October 17, 2015
Education requirements
Languages needed
Employment type
Full time
Professional level
Professional
Salary details
Negotiable
Job function
Owner’s areas of focus

International Film Studies and Cinematic Arts Conference on Cinema and Identity

CINE CRI ’15: II. International Film Studies and Cinematic Arts Conference on Cinema and Identity

http://www.cinecriconference.org/

CINE CRI ’15: II. International Film Studies and Cinematic Arts Conference will be held in Istanbul on JUNE 10 – 11, 2015 and organized by DAKAM (Eastern Mediterranean Academic Research Center) and hosted by Nazim Hikmet Cultural Center as a part of the Istanbul Art Studies Days Spring 2015.

CINE CRI ’15 on CINEMA and IDENTITY

The CINE CRI ’15 Conference aims to explore the representation of identities in cinema. Artistic and documentary works that make problematic the concept of identity within its political, ideological and historical correlations are in the scope of this year’s conference. Besides, the lived experiences related to cinema and the industry, not necessarily represented in films, may be addressed.

Identity has been one of the most scrutinized concepts in academic circles in recent years. It has been the topic of debates in a variety of fields and disciplines of social sciences, humanities and arts. Cinema has not been opted out of identity matters as film-makers have produced considerable number of works that are relevant to different dimensions of identity. Regarding the concept is constructed within discourse, difference and representation processes, film is a convenient space to be explored as a medium that both reflects and contributes to the construction and reconstruction of multiple identities that constitute an individual, i.e. the spectator.

IASD ’15: Istanbul Art Studies Days:

Istanbul Art Studies Days (IASD ’15) will also include CONTEMPART ’15 / IV. Contemporary Arts Conference (June 8-9) and CONTEMPHOTO ’15 / II. Contemporary Photography Conference (June 9-10) at the same place. Several keynote lectures, artist’s talks and additional events will be organized during Istanbul Art Studies Days and a registration ticket for only one of the conferences will offer free entry to all of the sessions of the three conferences. Each conference focusing on different topics, identity issues has been decided as the common theme of the IASD ’15.

The full papers are going to be available online in DAKAM’s digital library and to be published in the proceedings book with an ISBN number before the conference. The book will be sent to be reviewed for inclusion in the “Thomson and Reuters Web of Science’s Conference”

KEYNOTE SPEAKERS

Professor David Martin-Jones from University of Glasgow and internationally recognised film director Yesim Ustaoglu (Identity and sense of belonging: Reflections on the cinema of Yesim Ustaoglu (from Journey to the Sun to Araf)) are going to be keynote speakers of the event.

AGENDA:

Deadline for submission of abstracts: March 27, 2015

Deadline for registration: May 1, 2015

Deadline for full papers submission: May 8, 2015

MAIN TRACK:

CINEMA and IDENTITY

– Nation, nation-state and diverse ethnicities

– Migration, transnational and/or accented cinema

– Religion and religious groups

– Gender, women, LGBT identities

– Family, familial bonds

– Class and struggle

– Isolated or neglected identities

– Identity, culture and politics

– Local and global Identity

– Multiculturalism

CINEMA and IDEOLOGY

– Ideology of a Film

– Public Life, society and cinema

– Film, Public Memory and Daily Life

– Art Movements

– Technology and Materials

– Communication Tools, Urban Space and Cinema

– Cinema from Psychological, Sociological and Psychiatrical Perspective

– Literature, screenplay and cinema

– Film Musics

ARTS and SOCIETY

– Director, Actor, screenwriter, art director, costume designer, sound designer: Artist as a Subject

– Characters, People and Identity

– Politics of Body in Space

– Social Stratification in Cinema as Gender, Sexuality, Class, Race, Ethnicity and Age

– Race and Affects of Racism

– Women, Art and Society

OTHER TRACKS:

CINEMA and CITY

CINEMA and POLITICS

NATIONAL CINEMAS, HOLLYWOOD and ART-HOUSE CINEMA

REPETITION, PROGRESS and REFERENCE IN THE HISTORY OF FILM

TECHNIQUE and PRODUCTION

DOCUMENTARIES

VENUE

The conference will be held at Nazim Hikmet Cultural Center (NHKM – www.nazimhikmetkulturmerkezi.org) one of the most popular cultural centers in Istanbul.

Nazim Hikmet Cultural Center hosts several art and academic events in different disciplines every month. NHKM, named after one of the legendary modern Turkish poets – Nazim Hikmet, has been established in 1996 and located in Kadikoy. Kadikoy is a large and cosmopolitan district of Istanbul, facing the historic city centre on the other side of the Bosporus. With its numerous bars, cinemas and bookshops, Kadikoy can be regarded as the cultural centre of the Anatolian side of Istanbul.

SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE

The scientific committee consists of significant scholars, Asst. Prof. Dr. Levent Yilmazok – Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Prof. Julian Reid – University of Lapland, Asst. Prof. Ahmet Gurata – Bilkent University, Asst.Prof. Gal Kirn – Berlin Humboldt University, Asst. Prof. Tumay Arslan – Ankara University, Senior Lect. Andreas Treske – Izmir University of Economics, Asst. Prof. Andrea Meuzelaar – University of Utrecht

http://www.contemphotoconference.org/p/committees.html

ABSTRACT SUBMISSION

You can submit your abstract by entering the online registration system EASYCHAIR at

https://www.easychair.org/conferences/?conf=cinecri15

You will receive a reply to your proposal within three weeks following a double-blind review process.